The Ph.D. programme in physics involves a combination of courses, the completion of an original, scholarly piece of research that is then presented as a Ph.D. dissertation and the academic intership mainly focused on academic teaching skills. The courses available within the Ph.D. programme in physics are in form of lectures, classes, seminars, tutorials, computer labs and others. They cover various fields in physics and Ph.D. student together with supervisor decide which offered courses are most compatible with needs and interests of given student and his individual research programme. Total minimum number of 40 ECTS points have to be collected during the programme. The research activities of the department are broad and cover practically all fields of physics, both in theory and experiment. For a more detailed description of research areas, see the website of the Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science of the JU. Interdisciplinary and inter-departmental research activities also are possible.